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Mr Secretary Cecil, c. 1560s

The Treaty of Edinburgh

William Cecil and Nicholas Wotton to Queen Elizabeth, from Edinburgh, 8 July 1560. (Text taken from Haynes: State Papers. Side heads added for easy reference)

It may please your Majesty, yesterday the peace was here proclaimed ... It seemeth surely very welcome to all parts. This day the artillery on both sides is in withdrawing ... to be embarked ... As yet we cannot certainly understand the state of the town [of Leith], otherwise than thus:

The number [of the French] appear to be many, and those which be seen are, for all their scarcity of victual, very well liking, all very well armed. The French demanded yesterday shipping for four thousand persons, and we think they be not under three thousand soldiers, which in all men's judgment had been able to have encountered a great number, and if they had stood to it should have been the occasion of the shedding of a great deal of blood, which is now well saved.

As for the substance of our accord, your Majesty shall please to understand that it consisteth in these points:

Reduction of troop numbers .First, A reconciliation made, and the Treaty of Casteau in Cambresey [Cateau-Cambrésis] reduced to his former strength.
 Next, all the men of war to be removed, saving sixty in the Isle here, which indeed serveth to no purpose and so the French do see and confess, and sixty in Dunbar, whose new fortification shall be also, before your army depart out of Scotland, demolished. This town of Leith shall also be fully demolished.
Stop shipping war materials Item, All hostile preparation shall cease on both parts, and no ship shall be transported with men of war or any warlike apparel out of France, or any other place by consent of the French, into England, Scotland or Ireland; nor any from England or Ireland into France.
Demolition of Aymouth Item, Aymouth shall be also better demolished before your Majesty's army come to Berwick.
Recognition of Eliz's right to her crown Next to this, your Majesty's undoubted right to the crown of England and Ireland is fully confessed and acknowledged, with a certain declaration that no person may use the style or arms thereof but your Majesty only.
 And thereupon followeth the part for the redress and reformation of all things any wise done to the contrary, both in France and Scotland
Calais and reparations And where we persisted in demand of Calais and five hundred thousand crowns for a recompense, the same, as touching the recompense, is referred to a new treaty to be had betwixt us at London.
 And if it be not ended by us within three months, then it is referred to King Philip for a twelvemonth; and if he end it not, your right and demand for the recompense is reserved to your Majesty.
French-Spanish treaty Next this followeth the covenant to your Majesty for observing of the treaty now accorded betwixt the French and the Scots: which article was as hardly obtained as any, and next to it, the recognition of your Majesty's right to the crown.
And so on After this doth follow ordinary articles for observation and confirmation of this treaty.
 And, this is the sum of our treaty, which, with the accord of Scotland, hath spent us sixteen days, that is from the 16th of June to the third of July; and of that time three parts hath been spent in according of the matters of Scotland.

As to the accords of Scotland, these be the principal heads thereof:

French presence in Scotland Imprimis, The French shall not send any French soldier or of any other nation into Scotland, except this realm shall be invaded by an army of a strange country; and yet in that case the French shall send none but by the advice of the three Estates.
Orderly withdrawal of troops Item, All soldiers shall depart hence, saving a hundred and twenty, whereof sixty shall be in the Isle and sixty in Dunbar; which numbers shall be mustered and paid by the Lords of Scotland; and those soldiers shall be justifiable by the laws of Scotland, whereunto the French men of war here were never at any time subject.
 They shall take no victual but for ready money.
 They shall not receive any succour out of France of victuals or munition for the said hundred and twenty men but from six months to six months; with divers other articles to bridle them in sort as hereby is no doubt to be feared by them.
 And, saving that the French King's honour is somewhat relieved hereby, we see by likelihood that these will be diminished, and the charge thereof will be abridged, and the Isle abandoned, and Dunbar committed to some lord of this land.
No new fortifications Item, The French shall not fortify any thing in this land but by advice of the three Estates.
Debts due to citizens Item, The whole debts due to the subjects here for victuals taken these two years by d'Oysell and others to the use of the French shall be paid.
Term of parliament Item, The parliament shall begin the 10th of this month and shall be prorogued till the 20th, because the land cannot be well cleared of all men of war before that time.
Consent of the Estates Item, The King or Queen shall never make war nor peace here without the consent of the three Estates.
Governing Scotland Item, For governance of the policy of this realm the three Estates shall choose twenty-four, of the which the Queen shall choose seven and the Estates five to make a Council of twelve; without the greater [part] of which number nothing shall be done for the policy.
 And if the Estates shall find it needful to make the number fourteen, then the Queen shall choose eight, and the Estates six.
 The charges of this Council shall be maintained by the revenue of this crown.
 Officers of the realm to be civilians Item, For the ordinary offices of the realm either for justice, civil or criminal, or chancellor, treasurer, comptroller and such like, [they] shall be furnished only with subjects of the land; neither shall the office of treasurer or comptroller, being now void, be disposed upon any ecclesiastical person. Such is the hap of this clergy to be trusted.
Law of oblivion Item, All things done here against the laws shall be discharged, and a law of oblivion shall be established in this Parliament, excepting only such as the Estates here shall judge unworthy of this privilege.
No private armies Item, The three Estates shall order that whosoever levyeth any force contrary to the order of the country or without the consent of the Council of the land, the same shall be pursued as a rebel, so as the King and Queen shall not need to send any strange force to subdue the same.
Reconciliation Item, There shall be a general reconciliation of amity amongst all the states of the land, without reproof of any one to be given to the other.
To take no vengeance Item, The King and Queen shall never pursue nor make any avenge for any thing now past; neither shall they depose any person from any office or estate for any thing done since the 6th of March 1558[/9]; with many comfortable words on the King's and Queen's behalf to the subjects; and a provision that the lords and subjects shall render their obedience as natural subjects of this crown ought to do.
Keep the peace Item, A covenant on the Lords' parts to keep the realm in tranquillity.
Clergy deprved of livings Item, All the complaints of the deprived clergy shall be heard in this next Parliament, and reformation shall be made by the three Estates, which we think will be light enough.
 In the meantime the ecclesiastical persons shall not be impeached to enjoy their goods.
French pensions In the end, a grant of restitution to the Duke of Chastellerault and his son and all others of this land of all their estates and pensions in France: with which article we find more part of the Lords here offended, insomuch as they do amongst themselves devise how to accord that no Scottish man shall take pension of France.
 And the Earl of Glencairn, the Lord James [Moray], and Mr. Maxwell, who hath pension, is as earnest herein as any other, such hurt they fear may come by that means.

Thus have we briefly repeated the substance of ... this peace, which, being ... well pondered and conferred with this time, shall be no small augmentation to your Majesty's honour in this beginning of your reign and as yet in your maidenhood, and finally shall procure that conquest of this land that none of your progenitors with all their battles ever obtained: that is, in a manner, the whole hearts and good wills of the nobility and people of this land; which surely is better for England as we guess, than the revenue of this crown.

And so we beseech God to preserve your Majesty to reign long in peace.

From Edinburgh, the 8th of July.

Your Majesty's most humble and obedient subjects and servants,

W. Cecil, N, Wotton


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9 March 2010 mps